Radiation detection and measurement methods (A. Lyoussi)
Starting from the physical principles on interaction of radiation with matter, the course will discuss the performances and the limitations of various radiation detectors that can be used in nuclear reactors and in the subsequent stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.
The course will be structured in two parts:
- Interaction of radiation with matter.
- Physical principles of radiation detector:
- Gas-filled detectors
- Scintillation detectors
- Solid-state detectors (semiconductor, diamond, TLD)
- Activation detectors
Innovation aspects in radioactive waste characterization (E. Fanchini)
Short course on the results of the MICADO project focusing on the characterization procedures of the radiological waste produced in dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities or the legacy waste. Innovative detection technologies, digitalization, tracking of the information and minimization of the error propagation studies are some of the elements that will be reported to have an overview of the innovations in this field of application.
Medical physics instrumentation (P. Le Dû)
The main objective of this lecture is to present the basic of medical nuclear medicine seen from an experimental particle physicist. It is particularly designed as a basic educating lecture.
The course will be structured as follows:
- What is medical physics?
- A little bit of history from the 1900’s.
- A refreshing presentation of Radiation units (Curie, Becquerel, Gray’s , Sievert ..) and their effects on the human body.
- The basic of Radiology (from standard exam to the Computed Tomography).
- Fighting again cancer with modern tools and techniques.
- Introduction to Nuclear medicine, with details about dosimetry and production of tracers.
- An introduction of diagnostic imaging modalities and devices: CT, MRI, SPECT, PET with their technical evolution from past to future.
- Therapy with radiation: from Curie therapy, radiotherapy to particle therapy.
- Software and simulation: image formation, reconstruction and quantification techniques, emerging trends in diagnostic imaging (the use of AI).
Nuclear heating rate measurements (C. Reynard-Carette)
The nuclear heating rate, corresponding to an intense absorbed dose rate induced by the various interactions between radiation and matter and leading to an increase in temperature in the matter, represents a key nuclear quantity for research reactors and their associated irradiation experiments in terms of thermal, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design and data interpretation. The nuclear heating rate is measured on-line by means of specific calorimetric sensors called calorimeters. There are two types of calorimeters: the single cell calorimeter and the differential calorimeter. The short course will present:
- these different types of calorimeters,
- their design, materials, instrumentation and assembly,
- their thermal principle,
- their calibration under laboratory conditions without nuclear radiation,
- their measurement methods under real conditions (irradiation campaign),
- their main characteristics (sensitivity, measurement range, response time…),
- their advantages and drawbacks,
- the associated challenges.
The short course will be illustrated by results from the literature and the comprehensive approach conducted at Aix-Marseille University to innovate in calorimetry by coupling experimental work with simulations from laboratory conditions to real conditions.
How to present your scientific work? (P. Le Dû)
Some simple “personal” suggestions and guidelines extracted from the lecturer’s own long experience illustrated with some typical examples taken mostly from NPSS material like conferences, workshops and instrumentation schools. This lecture on science writing intends to train young scientists to become more effective and confident writers.
It will address some essential and challenging skills like:
Scientific writing: structure and format according to the target (conference record, journal papers, status report, grant proposal, etc.), reviewing: title, abstract, summary, conclusions and references.
Oral and remote (virtual) presentation using PPT and PDF.
- Poster presentation.
Fundamentals on electronics / semiconductor detectors (A. Chierici)
Nowadays, semiconductor materials used as radiation detectors find application in several different fields such as the industrial sectors, medical dosimetry, safety and security and more. Their performance depends on the characteristic properties that are not available with other detector types. The combination of high readout speed, the direct availability of signals in electronic form, the excellent spectroscopic performance, and the possibility of integrating detector and readout electronics on a common substrate are some of the obtainable benefits.
Since both detectors and detection methods are currently field of developments and investigations, this course will describe the physics principles of radiation interaction with semiconductors to understand how radiation can be detected.
Then, the detectors working basic principles and their main features will be reviewed together with an introduction to the electronics architecture of the most common readout and data acquisition systems. The performance of detectors will also be evaluated based on some of the main characteristic parameters, such as energy resolution, detection efficiency and dead time.